Sensors for Mobile Robots

1 Introduction

 1.1 Design considerations 2
 1.2 The Robots 4
  1.2.1 Walter 1965-1967 4
  1.2.2 Crawler l 1966-1968 7
  1.2.3 Crawler lo 1968-1971 10
  1.2.4 Robart l  1980-1985 11
  1.2.5 Robart lo 1982- 15
  1.2.6 Modbot 1990- 17
  1.2.7 USMC teleoperated vehicle 1985-1989 19
  1.2.8 MDARS Interior 1989 22
  1.2.9 surrogate Teleoperated Vehicle 1990-1993 25
  1.2.10 Robart lll 1992 28
  1.2.11 MDARS Exterior 1994 31
 1.3 References  33

2 Dead Reckoning 35

 2.1 Odometry Sensors 36
  2.1.1 Potentiometers 36
  2.1.2 Synchros and Resolvers 38
  2.1.3 Optical Encoders 41
 2.2  Doppler and Internal Navigation 45
  2.2.1 Doppler Navigation 45
  2.2.2. Inertial Navigation 47
 2.3 Typical Mobility configurations 48
  2.3.1 Differential steering 49
  2.3.2 Ackerman Steering 55
  2.3.3 Synchro Drive 57
  2.3.4 Tricycle Drive 61
  2.3.5 Omni Directional Drive 61
 2.4 Internal Position Error Correction 63
 2.5  References 65

3 Tactile and Proximity Sensing 69

 3.1  Tactile Sensors 69
  3.1.1 Tactile Feelers 69 
  3.1.2 Tactile Bumpers 71
  3.1.3 Distributed Surface Arrays 75
 3.2 Proximity Sensors 75
  3.2.1 Magnetic Proximity Sensors 76
  3.2.2 Inductive Proximity Sensors 86
  3.2.3 Capacitive Proximity Sensors 90
  3.2.4 Ultrasonic Proximity Sensors 91
  3.2.5 Microwave Proximity Sensors 92
  3.2.6 Optical Proximity Sensors 93
 3.3  References  98
 

4 Triangulation Ranging 103

 4.1 Stereo Disparity 106
  4.1.1 JPL Stereo Vision 109
  4.1.2 David Sarnoff Stereo Vision 111
 4.2 Active Triangulation 114
  4.2.1 Hamamatsu Rangefinder Chip set 116
  4.2.2 Draper Laboratory rangefinder 117
  4.2.3 Quantic Ranging system 119
 4.3 Active Stereoscopic 121
  4.3.1 Hermies 122
  4.3.2 Dual Aperture 3-D Range Sensor 124
 4.4 Structured Light 125
  4.4.1 TRC Strobed light Triangulation System  127
 4.5 Known Target Size 128
  4.5.1 Namco Lasernet scanning laser sensor 129
 4.6 Optical Flow 131
  4.6.1 NIST Passive Ranging and collision Avoidance 133
  4.6.2 David Sarnoff Passive Vision  133
 4.7 References 134

5 Time of Flight  139

 5.1 Ultrasonic TOF systems 141
  5.1.1 National Semiconductor’s LM1812 Ultrasonic Transceiver 141
  5.1.2 Massa Products Ultrasonic Ranging Module Subsystems 143
  5.1.3 Polaroid Ultrasonic Ranging Modules 144
  5.1.4 Cybermotion CA-2 Collision  148
 5.2 Laser-Based TOF Systems 150
  5.2.1 Schwartz Electro Optics Laser Rangefinders 150
  5.2.2 RIEGLLaser Measurement Systems 158
  5.2.3 Odetics Fast Frame Rate 3-D Laser Imaging system 161
  5.2.4 RVSI Long Optical Ranging and Detection System 162
 5.3 References  165

6 Phase-shift Measurement and Frequency Modulation  169

 6.1 Phase Shift Measurement 169
  6.1.1 ERIM 3-D Vision system 174
  6.1.2 Perceptron LASAR 177
  6.1.3 Odetics Scanning Laser Imaging System 178
  6.1.4 Sandia Scannerless Range Imager 180
  6.1.5 ESP Optical Ranging system 183
  6.1.6 Acuity AcuRange 3000 185
  6.1.7 TRC Light Direction and Ranging System 187
 6.2  Frequency Modulation  188
  6.2.1 VRSS Automotive Collision Avoidance Radar 190
  6.2.2 VORAD Vehicle Detection and Driver Alert System 191
  6.2.3 Safety First Systems Vehicular Obstacle Detection & Warning 193
  6.2.4 Millitech Millimeter Wave Radar 194
 6.3 References 197

7 Other Ranging Techniques 199

 7.1 Interferometry 199
  7.1.1 CLS Coordinate Measuring System 201
 7.2 Range From Focus 202
  7.2.1 Honeywell Autofocus Systems 203
  7.2.2 Associates and Ferren Swept-Focus Ranging 206
  7.2.3 JPL Range from Focus System 210
 7.3 Return Signal Intensity 211
  7.3.1 Programmable Near Infrared Proximity Sensor 212
  7.3.2 Australian National Uni Rangefinder 215
  7.3.3 MIT Near -Infrared Ranging System 216
  7.3.4 Honeywell Displaces-Sensor Ranging Unit 216
 7.4 References 217

8 Acoustical Energy 221

 8.1 Applications 224
 8.2 Performance Factors 225
  8.2.1 Atmospheric Attenuation 225
  8.2.2 Target Reflectivity 227
  8.2.3 Air Turbulence 232
  8.2.4 Temperature 233
  8.2.5 Beam Geometry 234
  8.2.6 Noise 239
  8.2.7 System Specific Anomalies 240
 8.3 C hoosing an operating Frequency 242
 8.4 Sensor Selection Case Study 242
 8.5 References 244

9  Electromagnetic Energy 249
 9.1 optical energy 252
  9.1.1 Electro-optical Sources 253
  9.1.2 Performance Factors 258
  9.1.3 Choosing an Operation wavelength  262
 9.2 Microwave Radar 263
  9.2.1 Applications 264
  9.2.2 Performance Factors 264  
 9.3 Millimeter Wave Radar 263
  9.3.1 Applications 268
  9.3.2 Performance Factors 269
 9.4 References  274

10 Collision Avoidance  279

 10.1 Navigational Control Strategies 279
  10.1.1 Reactive Control 280
  10.1.2 Representational World Modeling 290
  10.1.3 COMBINED APPROACH 295
 10.2 Exterior Application Considerations 299
 10.3 Navigational Re-referencing 301
 10.4 References 302

11  Guidepath Following  305

 11.1 Wire Guided 306
 11.2 Optical Stripe 309
  11.2.1 ModBot Optical Stripe Tracker 310
  11.2.2 U/V Stimulated Emission 312
 11.3 Magnetic Tape 313
  11.3.1 Macome Magnetic Stripe Follower 314
  11.3.2 Apogee Magnetic Stripe Follower  315
  11.3.3 3M/Honeywell Magnetic Lateral Guidance System 316
 11.4 Heat and Odor Sensing  317
 11.5 Intermittent-Path Navigation 321
  11.5.1 MDARS Interior Hybrid Navigation 322
  11.5.2 Free Ranging On Grid 322
 11.6 references 325
 

12 Magnetic Compasses 327

 12.1 Mechanical Magnetic compasses 328
  12.1.1 Dinsmore Starguide Magnetic compass 329
 12.2 Fluxgate compasses 330 
  12.2.1 Zemco Fluxgate Compasses 337
  12.2.2 Watson Gyro Compass 340
  12.2.3 KVH Fluxgate Compasses  341
  12.2.4 Applied Physics systems Miniature Orientation Sensor 343
 12.3 Magnetoinductive Magnetometers 344
  12.3.1 Precision Navigation TCM Magnetoinductive Compass 345
 12.4 Hall Effect Compasses 347
 12.5 Magnetoresistive Compasses 349
  12.5.1 Philips AMR Compass 350
  12.5.2 Space Electronics AMR Compass 351
  12.5.3 Honeywell HMR Series Smart Digital Magnetometer 352
 12.6 Magnetoelastic Compasses 353
 12.7 References 357

13 Gyroscopes 361

 13.1 Mechanical Gyroscopes 362
  13.1.1 Space Stable Gyroscopes 362
  13.1.2 Gyrocompasses 364
  13.1.3 Rate Gyros 365
 13.2 Optical Gyroscopes 371
  13.2.1 Active Ring-Laser Gyros 373
  13.2.2 Passive Ring< Resonator gyros 380
  13.2.3 Open-Loop Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros 381
  13.2.4 Closed-Loop Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros 387
  13.2.5 Resonant Fiber Optic Gyros 389
 13.3 References 390

14 RF Position Location Systems 395

 14.1 Ground Based RF Systems 395
  14.1.1 Loran 395
  14.1.2 Kaman Sciences Radio Frequency Navigation Grid 396
  14.1.3 Precision Technology tracking and Telemetry System 398
  14.1.4 Motorola Mini Ranger Falcon 400
  14.1.5 Harris Infogeometric System 401
 14.2 Satellite Based System 403
  14.2.1 Transit Satellite Navigation System 403
  14.2.2 Navstar Global Positioning System 405
 14.3 References 420

15 Ultrasonic and Optical Position Location Systems 423

 15.1 Ultrasonic Position Location systems 423
  15.1.1 Ultrasonic Transponder Trilateration 424
  15.1.2 Ultrasonic Signature Matching 431
 15.2 Optical Position Location Systems 433
  15.2.1 Crawler I Homing Beacon 433
  15.2.2 Robart II Recharging Beacon 434
  15.2.3 Cybermotion docking Beacon 436
  15.2.4 Hilare 438
  15.2.5 NAMCO Laserneta Scanning Laser Sensor 439
  15.2.6 Caterpillar Self Guided Vehicle 441
  15.2.7 TRC Beacon Navigation System 442
  15.2.8 /Intelligent Solutions EZNav Position Sensor 442
  15.2.9 Imperial College Beacon Navigation System 444
  15.2.10 MTI Research CONAC 445
  15.2.11 MDARS Lateral Post Sensor 448
 15.3 References  452

16 Wall Doorway and Ceiling Referencing 455

 16.1 Wall Referencing 455
  16.1.1 Tactile Wall Referencing 455
  16.1.2 Non Contact Wall referencing 458
  16.1.3 Wall Following 461
 16.2 Doorway Transit Referencing 465
 16.3 Ceiling referencing  472
  16.3.1 Polarized Optical Heading Reference 472
  16.3 2 Georgia Tech Ceiling Referencing System 473
  16.3.3 TRC Help Mate Ceiling Referencing System 474
  16.3.4 MDARS Overhead Beam Referencing system              476
 16.4 Reference 477

17 Application Specific Middion Sensors 479

 17.1 The Security Application 479
  17.1.1 Acoustical Detection 480
  17.1.2 Vibration Sensors 484
  17.1.3 Ultrasonic Presence Sensors 484
  17.1.4 Optical Motion Detection 485
  17.1.5 Passive Infrared Motion Detection 486
  17.1.6 Microwave Motion Detection  493
  17.1.7 Video Motion on the Move 494
  17.1.8 Intrusion Detection on the Move 496
  17.1.9 Verification and Assessment 502
 17.2 Automated Inventory Assessment 504
  17.2.1 MDARS Product Assessment system 505
 17.3 References 510

Appendix  513
Index   523